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Grand Fir

Abies grandis • Lowland Fir


Largest of the firs; can grow up to 80 meters tall. Grand fir prefers drier climates than the other true firs in British Columbia. In the Interior, it commonly grows in mixed coniferous forests and occurs at relatively low elevations in the coastal and interior forests of southern British Columbia.


Relatively stiff, 20-35 mm long, shorter on the upper side of the twig; tip notched; upper surface shiny dark green, grooved, sometimes with a few white dots at the tip; several lines of white dots beneath. Needles horizontally spreading in 2 distinct ranks. Resin ducts near lower surface. Odor of oranges when crushed.


Cylindrical to narrowly ovoid, with a blunt or sunken tip, 5-12 cm long, green to purplish; scales much wider (25-30 mm) than long; bracts shorter than the scales, with broad pointed shoulders loping inward to the base of the tip, a small tooth no higher than the tops of the shoulders. Seed production less prolific than other firs.


Smooth, grayish-brown, with resin blisters and white blotches when young; with age, becoming deep brown, thick and scaly, separating into dark gray flat ridges.

186 Trees

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