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Black Spruce

Picea Mariana • Bog spruce, Swamp spruce, Water spruce


Black spruce is a transcontinental species, found southward to the United States and widely distributed in Canada. It is relatively small and can grow up to 20 meters tall. It is typically a slow-growing wetland tree, but occurs frequently on upland sites where its growth is comparable to that of white spruce. When grown on high and dry ground, black spruce trees are taller and thicker, When it grows in wetlands, the tree is much smaller. Trees grown in wetlands can reach 200 years of age. Fire stimulates cones to open and shed seeds.


4-sided needles, greyish-green. Short-stalked needles that are spirally arranged and curve upward.


Male and female cones on same tree. Male cones small and numerous. Female cones greyish to purplish-brown, 2-3 cm long. Hang on short, curved stalks.


Mature bark greyish-brown with thin irregular scales.

186 Trees

Heritage Tree

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  • Heritage Tree No. {{property.recognition_number}}
  • Age: {{property.tree_age}} years
  • Height: {{property.tree_height}} metres
  • Circumference: {{property.tree_circumference}} centimetres